A fire door is a door that meets the requirements for fire resistance stability, integrity, and insulation for a certain period of time. It is a fireproof partition with certain fire resistance, such as in fire compartments, evacuation stairwells, vertical shafts. In addition to the function of ordinary doors, fire doors have the function of preventing the spread of fire and the spread of smoke, which can prevent the spread of fire for a certain period of time and ensure the evacuation of personnel.
Fire doors are generally located in the following areas.
(1) Closed evacuation stairs leading to the walkway; closed elevator room,
Passing the front room and the front room to the door of the walkway.
(2) Inspection doors for vertical pipeline wells such as cable wells, pipeline wells, exhaust ducts, and garbage lanes.
(3) Divide the fire compartment, control the firewall and fire door on the partition building area. When it is difficult to set up a firewall or fire door in a building, it should be replaced by a fire shutter, and it must be protected by water curtain.
(4) Specification (such as GB50016-2014 "Code for Fire Protection of Building Design") or designing partition walls for fire protection and smoke prevention.
For example, the equipment room (cylinder room, foam station, etc.) of the fixed fire-fighting device attached to the high-rise civil building, the partition door of the ventilation, air-conditioning room, etc. should adopt Class A fire door; often there are people who stay or have more combustible materials. Class A fire doors shall be used for the doors on the partition walls of the basement room; fuel and gas boilers, fuel oil-immersed power transformers, fuel-filled high-voltage capacitors and switches, etc., shall be arranged in high-rise buildings due to conditions. Class A fire doors shall be used for doors on the wall of the special room. There are also household doors that are designed to have special requirements, such as fire control command centers, archives and reference rooms, and valuables warehouses. Class A or Class B fire doors are usually used. The door of the high-rise residential building is often equipped with fire-proof security doors. GB 12955-2008 requirements for fire resistance of fire doors
Fire doors are an important part of fire-fighting equipment and an important part of social fire prevention. Fire doors should be equipped with fire door door closers or door-closing devices that allow normally open fire doors to automatically close the door when a fire occurs. Except for the use of parts, such as pipe well doors, etc.). That is to say, in addition to some special parts, such as the pipe well door, there is no need to install the door closer, and other parts need to install the fire door closer.
New fire door
1. It is required to install an electronically controlled automatic release device for normally open fire doors;
2. The requirements for fireproof glass are more detailed;
3. Increase the quality of the door leaf of the fire door to reduce the test method;
4. Increase the test method for the deflection of the width of the door leaf;
5. Increase the test method for the gap between the door leaf and the door frame;
6. Increase the safety of the fire door to reduce the test method;
7. Increase the reliability of the fire door to test the test method;
8. The test method for the door leaf distortion of wooden fire doors has been improved;
9. Increase the method of measuring the overlap size of the door leaf and the door frame;
1. The main changes of the new version of the national standard of fire doors compared with GB 12955-1991 and GB 14101-1993 are as follows:
2. Increase the classification according to the function of the fire door, for the normally open fire door, normally closed fire door, mobile fire door;
3. The classification of the fire-resistant function of the fire door was modified. The original classification was changed to A, B and C, and the version was changed to “Insulation Fire Door (Type A)” and “Department Insulation Fire Door (Class B)”. And “non-insulated fire doors (category C)” classification;
4. The requirements for materials for fire doors are more comprehensive and detailed. Materials other than metal materials increase the requirements for the combustion function of materials and the toxicity of materials burning smoke;
5. Delete the wind-resistant deformation function of the wooden fire door used as the outer door of the building, the anti-air permeable and seepage function and the anti-rainwater seepage and discharge function;
6. The function requirements of the fire lock are more detailed.
There are many types of fire doors.
There are wooden fire doors, steel fire doors, steel fire doors, other fire doors, etc.;
Wooden fire door
Fire resistant timber doorsets
Use fire-resistant wood or fire-resistant wood products for door frames, door leaf frames, and door leaf panels.
Steel fire door
Fire resistant steel doorsets
The door frame, the door leaf frame and the door leaf panel are made of steel material, and if the material is filled in the door leaf, the fireproof heat insulation material which is non-toxic and harmless to the human body is filled, and the door with certain fire resistance performance composed of fireproof hardware parts is matched.
Steel wood fire door
Fire resistant timber doorsets with steel structure
Door frames, door leaf frames, and door leaf panels are made from steel and flame retardant wood materials or flame retardant wood products.
Other material fire doors
Other material fire resistant door sets
Use inorganic non-combustible materials other than steel, flame-retardant wood or non-combustible wood products or partially use steel, flame-retardant wood, non-combustible wood products to make door frames, door leaf frames, door leaf panels, fill materials in the door leaf, fill A fire-proof and heat-insulating material that is non-toxic and harmless to the human body, and is equipped with a fire-resistant hardware fitting with a certain fire-resistant door.
There are access fire doors, indoor fire doors, explosion-proof fire doors, fast-locking fire doors, fire doors quickly open in case of fire;
There are electronic fire doors, multi-functional fire doors with built-in fire door closers, etc.
According to the open state, it is divided into normally closed fire door and normally open fire door. Normally closed fire doors are generally composed of fire door fans, door frames, door closers, sealing strips, etc. Double or multiple normally closed fire doors are also equipped with sequencers. Normally closed fire doors usually do not require electrical professional to provide self-control design, but there are also some special circumstances such as: normally closed fire doors on evacuation channels. When some large construction parties have management requirements such as anti-theft, they should be designed by electrical professional. It may be a comprehensive reduction of security risks. For normally open fire doors, in addition to all the accessories with normally closed fire doors, fire door release switches must be added, and the electrical professional must provide self-control design. It is usually applied to evacuation channels with a large flow of people.
Insulated fire door (Class A) fully insulated doorsets
A fire door that meets both fire integrity and insulation requirements for a specified period of time.
Partially insulated fire door (Class B) partially insulated doorsets
Fire doors that meet fire resistance integrity and insulation requirements within 0.50 h or less. Non-insulated fire door (Class C) no insulated doorsets
A fire door that meets fire integrity requirements within a specified time.
The difference between the anti-theft door and the fire door is that the main function of the anti-theft door is that the anti-smashing sealing performance is better. Generally, the door cannot be opened without a key outside the door, and the filler in the door panel is not a fireproof material. The security door must have the “FAM” mark and refer to the general technical condition GB17565-2007 of the anti-theft security door. Although the fire door is also made of steel, the door panel is filled with fireproof material, and the thickness of the door steel plate has different requirements. The steel door is an ordinary steel door. It also has a certain anti-theft function, but the anti-smashing performance is relatively poor. The general street processing factory is this type.
Only Shanghai and Chengdu have local standards for fireproof security doors. In other places, they can only be called fireproof entry doors, that is, they can reach the national fireproof Class A or Class B fire door standards, and (with fire door cores) Class A and Class B standards. Generally divided by anti-burning time. At the same time, the flood prevention requirements are achieved in the following aspects:
The thickness of the door frame is 1.5, and the thickness of the front and back of the door leaf is 0.8.
The lock has anti-smashing function, that is, the lock body has both the oblique locking tongue and the square locking tongue, and has a quick opening function, which is the best in the twist type, but the heaven and earth lock is not allowed.
Both the lock and the cat's eye shall have a fire detection report, and the Class B fireproof entry door may be fitted with a door collar. Class A is not allowed to be installed.
At the time of acceptance, the merchant shall provide a fireproof type approval certificate, a fire detection report, and a metal entrance door inspection report. Fire detection report for locks and cat eyes. The door opening direction is a fast evacuation direction and cannot be opened inside.
Wooden insulated fire door
This standard specifies the product classification, specification size, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, label packaging, transportation and storage of wood insulated fire doors. This standard applies to fire doors that use wood or wood products as door frames, door leaf frames, and door leaf panels.
The difference between electronically controlled fire doors and ordinary fire doors:
Emergency and statistical functions, the system can automatically display the physical location of the designated cardholder on the computer, so as to facilitate timely contact.
When an emergency such as a fire occurs, the electronically controlled fire door will automatically open to facilitate escape, and the entrance and exit can also be automatically opened; when an illegal entry or exit occurs, an automatic alarm will be issued;
Wooden insulated fire door national standard
Wood insulated fire doors refer to wood or wood products used as door frames, door leaf frames, door leaf panels, door panels filled with insulation materials or wooden doors made of wood or wood products as door frames and door leaves. Class A can also be installed on the door leaf. The composite fireproof glass and the door leaf are provided with a bright window composed of a door frame and a type A composite fireproof glass, and are equipped with fireproof hardware components to meet the fire integrity and heat insulation.
Wood insulated fire doors are classified into Class A, Class B and Class C according to fire resistance. The fire resistance requirements are 90min, 60min and 30min respectively. The wood used for making solid wood fire doors needs to be dried and flame retarded. The water content should not exceed 12%. When restricted by conditions, the moisture content at the time of production should not be greater than the local equilibrium moisture content.
Hardware accessories for wood insulated fire doors must be fire resistant hardware accessories. The main hardware accessories are: fire hinges (hinge), fireproof bolts, fire door locks, fire sequencers and fire door closers.
Fire resistance of wood-insulated fire doors When testing fire resistance, wood-insulated fire doors shall be able to meet the conditions specified in the standard within the time required for their fire resistance.
There is no flame that burns continuously for more than 10s on the backfire surface; if there are cracks, holes or other pores on the backfire surface and there is no flame, the combustibles at a distance of 20mm~30mm from these pores cannot be within 10s~30s. Ignition; the sample should not collapse.
When the average temperature rise of the temperature measurement point on the solid wood fire door reaches 140 °C or the temperature rise of any temperature measurement point reaches 180 °C, the insulation loss is judged.
When conducting product consistency checks on site, the following should be checked:
1. Whether the appearance of the product is consistent with the standard requirements;
2. Whether the product identification is consistent with the standard requirements;
3. Whether the product structure is consistent with the test report;
4. Whether the material of the product is consistent with the test report;
5. Whether the performance parameters of the product are consistent with the test report.
The fire door has the characteristics of smooth surface, beautiful appearance, flexible opening, sturdy and durable, easy to use, safe and reliable. There are various specifications for fire doors. In addition to the size of the door opening according to the unified modular system of national building doors and windows, GBJ2-73 "Building Unified Module System" can also be customized according to user requirements.
The wooden fire door is made of fire-resistant wood or non-combustible wood products as the door frame, door leaf frame and door leaf panel. If the door leaf is filled with materials, it will be filled with fire-proof and heat-insulating materials that are non-toxic and harmless to the human body, and are equipped with fire-proof hardware components. A door with certain fire resistance.
The overlapping dimension of the door leaf and the door frame shall not be less than 12mm; the matching clearance of the door leaf and the hinged side of the door frame shall not be greater than the dimensional tolerance specified in the design drawings; the clearance of the matching movement between the door leaf and the door frame shall not be greater than the design drawing. The specified dimensional tolerance; the clearance between the door leaf and the upper frame should not exceed 3mm; the gap between the door of the double and multi-door should not exceed 3mm; the clearance between the door and the lower frame or the ground should not exceed 9mm; the door leaf and Door frame fitting surface clearance: the gap between the door leaf and the door frame with the hinge side, the locking side and the upper frame should not exceed 3mm; the height difference between the door leaf and the door frame: on the fire door opening surface, Tianjin expansion and contraction The plane height difference between the bar code reader door frame and the door leaf should not exceed 1mm.
The wooden fire door refers to the door frame, the door leaf frame and the door leaf panel made of wood or wood products, and the fire limit reaches the national standard. Some small deviations between wooden fire doors cannot be wrong. Perhaps it is a small detail problem that may not meet national standards.
First of all, compare the materials used. The structure of the fire door is simple. It consists of four parts: the door closer, the material of the door panel (there are several types such as 06 and 08), the door frame material and the fireproof board. Grade A fire doors are generally made of better quality 08 materials. The normal service life is 5-8 years. The iron of the door panels is thicker. The fire doors of the same thickness are more heavy than the Class B fire doors.
The fire prevention time of the fire door is mainly determined by the fireproof board. In this respect, the fireproof board used in the Class A fire door is generally better than the fire board used in the Class B fire door, so the overall performance is stronger than the Class B fire door. In addition, Class A fire doors are especially suitable for those who require fine grinding before welding, excellent vibration, mirror polishing of hand tools, mirror polishing of electric heating tubes, etc., such as the vibration of various furniture hardware accessories, the cutting and polishing of hand tools, and daily use. Surface glazing of products and self-drawn parts.
Another point of concern is that the material with door frame function in the Class A fire door can be flexibly customized according to the customer's needs because of the size of the door frame. It is more convenient, labor-saving and time-saving to design the door hole size.
Although in terms of procurement cost, Class A fire doors are higher than Class B fire doors, in terms of comprehensive cost of use, Class A fire doors are superior to Class B fire doors in many respects. However, Class B fire doors also have low-cost features and also occupy a part of the low-end market.
It is difficult for a good woman to be a rice without a rice. The rice is also divided into good rice and bad rice. The manufacturer refuses to use "good rice" and naturally produces a fire door with reliable quality. This is worthy of consideration by Chinese enterprises.
There are many types of fire doors: glass fire doors, stainless steel fire doors, ordinary steel fire doors, but the installation method is basically the same according to the situation on the site, there are some common installation parameters must pay attention.
First, the installation of fire doors should be in accordance with the type of fire doors used, and the appropriate installation method should be adopted.
Second, the door frame of the fire door can be fixed with the expansion bolt and the wall, or the iron piece can be pre-buried at the hole when the wall is built, and the connection of the door frame is firmly welded during installation.
3. Regardless of the connection method used for the door frame and the wall, each side shall be no less than 3 anchor points and shall be firmly connected.
4. When installing the fire door, it should be straightened and hoisted first. After the size is appropriate, temporarily fix it, and make corrections and adjustments. After the error is correct, the connection can be anchored.
5. The sliding door is required to be pushed and pulled flexibly after installation; the swing door is easy to open and the closing is tight and firm.
Sixth, the door closer must be installed on the fire door, and the sequencer should be installed on the door.
7. Hardware accessories such as handles and fire locks on fire doors must be complete;
8. The clearance between the requirements and the ground plane should be no more than 5mm.
Steel fire doors are moderately priced, but they are self-contained, open and laborious, and monotonous and not aesthetically pleasing. Therefore, they are mostly used in industrial buildings and general-grade civil buildings, or in buildings where low aesthetic requirements and low traffic flow are small (such as In the opposite direction, the wooden fire door has light weight, flexible opening and closing, good appearance and good decoration, and more patterns, but the price is higher, and it is mostly used in medium-to-high-grade civil buildings or important occasions in buildings. . Generally, the maximum opening size for each fire door is about 3.3m high, 1.1m wide - single fan, and 3.0m double fan. In engineering design, in addition to strictly setting the fire door according to the occasion, location, width, grade and opening direction of the specification, it should be noted that:
Fire doors are generally located on evacuation routes (such as stairwells, front rooms, walkways, etc.). The slight attention paid to the design of the flat surface of the building may cause the evacuation path to be obscured after the door leaf is opened, reducing its effective width, and violating the basic requirements for evacuation. . This phenomenon is particularly prominent in the transition path of evacuation routes and high-rise residential buildings, which should be paid attention to and avoided.
Evacuation port problem leading to adjacent partitions
Under certain conditions, when a Class A fire door leading to an adjacent fire zone is provided, only one safety exit is allowed in each zone in the high-rise building. It should be noted that since the fire door can only be opened in one direction, if there are only one safety exit in the two adjacent partitions, two fire doors should be separated on the firewall and opened separately to the two sides to meet the two partitions. The need to evacuate each other.
The most commonly used is the normally closed fire door. Its door leaf is always closed. When the personnel pass, the manual door is opened and closed by the rear door leaf. If the push bolt hardware is installed, it is more convenient to speed up the evacuation. However, normally closed fire doors installed in public passages have the disadvantages of affecting ventilation and lighting, obstructing sight, and inconvenient transportation when used normally. If the management is not good, the door closers and opening and closing hardware are often destroyed and malfunction, resulting in safety hazards. . The normally open fire door appeared to solve the above problem. Usually, the door leaf is fixed in the open position by the door fixer, and the door opener is automatically released during the fire to restore the same function as the normally closed fire door. Due to the addition of the door closer and automatic release system, sometimes it is also linked with the automatic alarm system. The use of a normally open fire door will inevitably increase the project cost. The current fire protection regulations do not impose mandatory rules on how to open and close the fire doors. They can be determined by the designer considering the standard of the building, the characteristics of the use, the management needs of the building users and the economic factors.
Fire doors are divided into materials: steel fire doors and wooden fire doors. There are some details on the installation methods. The fire rating is also slightly different. Everyone must pay attention to the details when installing.
First of all, when the wooden fire door is installed, the size of the door frame should be 20mm smaller than the hole, and the bottom of the door frame should be buried 20mm below the ground. The door frame should be fixed firmly to the wall and perpendicular to the corner. Lit, the poles should pay close attention to the straight angle, avoiding the saw. There should be no less than 3 fixed points on both sides of the door frame, and the spacing should not be greater than 800mm.
Secondly, in the installation process of the steel fire door, considering the problem of the bending deformation of the door frame, it should be supported by the wooden raft in the width direction of the door frame, the foot frame is buried under the ground 20mm, and the door frame and the embedded part on the wall body. welding. Then open a hole in the upper corner of the door frame, inject concrete, sand, expanded perlite (1:2:5) concrete, and then use the concrete after it has solidified. Fire doors have airtight requirements:
The national standard has clear requirements for the gap size of each joint of the fire door: for steel fire doors, the overlap between the fan and the door frame is required to be no less than 10mm, and the gap between the fan and the door frame must not be greater than 4mm. The gap after the installation of the fire door is not too large, otherwise the sealing performance of the fire door is difficult to guarantee, and it is difficult to reflect the fire and smoke diffusion effect under fire conditions.
Therefore, the width of the seam installed in the fire door must be strictly controlled. According to these standard installations, the effective function of the fire door can be guaranteed to a certain extent. Consumers must supervise the construction unit when they hire the construction unit to prevent them from cutting corners and other problems, so that the fire door will not be in the event of a fire. Causing casualties.
Method of operation
Extensively carry out publicity and education on the use, maintenance and management of fire-fighting facilities within the jurisdiction of the fire-fighting department, and strive to raise people's awareness of fire-fighting awareness and self-protection; extensively carry out fire-fighting umbrella education and education for units equipped with fire door maintenance We will strive to let every employee understand the basic knowledge of the use, maintenance and management of fire door maintenance, consciously participate in the maintenance and management of the door of life, and keep it in a state of readiness; in the fire door maintenance, the fire door is used for maintenance purposes, functions and Easy to use state and basic requirements, write in the conspicuous position of the normally closed fire door repair: "normally closed fire door maintenance, please close at any time" to let customers and the masses understand the basic common sense of fire door maintenance; to promote the protection of fire facilities and equipment Activities, mobilize everyone to participate in the protection of fire facilities such as fire door maintenance.