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Grid

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Grid

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It can be divided into two-layer plate type grid structure, single layer and double layer shell type grid structure. The plate type net frame and the double-shell type net frame are divided into upper chord, lower chord and web, which are mainly subjected to tension and pressure; the single-layer shell type frame is subjected to tension and pressure, and is also subjected to tension and pressure. Bending moment and shear force. At present, most of China's grid structure adopts a plate type grid structure.

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It can be divided into two-layer plate type grid structure, single layer and double layer shell type grid structure. The plate type net frame and the double-shell type net frame are divided into upper chord, lower chord and web, which are mainly subjected to tension and pressure; the single-layer shell type frame is subjected to tension and pressure, and is also subjected to tension and pressure. Bending moment and shear force. At present, most of China's grid structure adopts a plate type grid structure.

formation

Mainly divided into three categories: The first type is composed of plane truss system, there are two directions of orthogonal orthogonal grid, two-way orthogonal oblique grid, two-way oblique oblique grid and three-way grid. The second type consists of a quadrangular pyramid unit, which has a four-corner cone frame, a positive-draw square pyramid net frame, a diagonal quadrangular pyramid net frame, a checker-shaped quadrangular pyramid net frame, and a star-shaped quadrangular pyramid net frame. The third category consists of triangular pyramidal elements, including a triangular cone mesh frame, an evacuated triangular cone mesh frame, and a honeycomb triangular pyramid mesh frame. The shell-type grid structure is mainly divided into a cylindrical shell type grid frame, a spherical shell type grid frame and a hyperbolic parabolic shell type grid frame according to the shell surface form. The grid structure is divided into a steel grid, a reinforced concrete grid and a combined grid of steel and reinforced concrete according to the materials used, of which steel grids are used more.

Internal force analysis

The grid structure is a high-order statically indeterminate structure system. In the analysis of the plate type grid, it is generally assumed that the joint is hinged, and the external load acts on the joint according to the static equivalent principle, which can be calculated according to the space truss displacement method, that is, the hinged rod finite element method. Simplified calculation methods such as cross beam differential analysis, pseudo-plate method, etc. can also be used for internal force and displacement calculation. The nodes of the single-layer shell-type grid are generally assumed to be just connected, and should be calculated according to the finite element method of the rigid joint system; the double-shell shell grid can be calculated according to the finite element method of the hinged rod system. Single-layer and double-shell grids can also be simplified by the pseudoshell method.

Design construction

The cross-section of the truss structure shall be determined based on strength and stability calculations. In order to reduce the calculation length of the pressure bar and increase its stability, measures such as adding a sub-bar and a support rod can be adopted. The plate type grid frame made of steel and the nodes of the double-layer shell type grid frame mainly have three forms: a cross plate node, a welded hollow ball node and a bolt ball node. The cross-plate joint is suitable for the grid structure of the steel bar, the connection between the rod and the gusset plate, and the welding or high-strength bolt connection. The hollow ball joint and the bolt ball joint are suitable for the grid structure of the steel pipe rod. The joints of the single-layer shell-type grid should be able to withstand the bending internal force. Under normal circumstances, the steel consumption of the joints accounts for 15-20% of the steel used for the entire steel grid structure.

Construction installation

The construction and installation methods of the grid structure are divided into two categories: one is the overall jacking method, the overall lifting method and the overall lifting method assembled on the ground; the other is the bulk, stripping in place assembly and high altitude in place at high altitude. Slip in place and other methods.

Relevant information

Since the twentieth century, the spatial structure has been greatly developed throughout the world. The space grid structure is a kind of space grid structure. The so-called "space structure" is a relative "planar structure". It has the characteristics of three-dimensional action, and the space structure can also be regarded as the expansion and deepening of the plane structure. Since the advent of the space structure, it has been welcomed by its efficient force performance, novel and beautiful form and quick and convenient construction. In stadiums, convention centers, cultural facilities, transportation hubs and even industrial plants that require large spans and large spaces, all the space structures are seen.

After a century of continuous development of the space structure, in addition to the grid and the net shell, the membrane structure, the tensioning system, the opening and closing roof, and the foldable structure are all new members of the space structure. In the early twentieth century, steel materials provided conditions for the development of the grid structure, and the subsequent aluminum alloy made the rods of the grid more lightweight. Composite materials in recent years, especially a large number of new building materials, have been developed, which have a strong influence on the development of spatial structure. Due to the continuous improvement of the variety and strength of steel materials, the space structure has also adopted steel, steel, steel bars, cables and even cast steel products. To a large extent, the spatial structure has become a "space steel structure." With the advent of modern computers, some new theories and analytical methods, such as finite element method, non-linear analysis, dynamic analysis, etc., have been widely used in spatial structures, and the calculation and design of spatial structures are more convenient and accurate. The spatial structure is now ever-changing and diverse. It can be said that the spatial structure has become one of the most important and active areas of contemporary architectural structure.

 

The grid structure is generally composed of substantially identical grids or smaller units (repeated). Often used in roof structures.

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